Electric cars are a category of Electric vehicles. Electric vehicles refer to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion. Electric cars are those which are propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy stored in rechargeable batteries in place of a typical gas engine. It starts working as when we plugged into a charge point and obtaining energy from the grid. During the functioning of electric cars, it stores electricity in rechargeable batteries that power an electric motor, which turns the wheels. They store the electricity in rechargeable batteries that power an electric motor, which turns the wheels.
An electric car such as Nissan Leaf, Ford Focus Electric or Tesla Model S, Chevrolet Volt is a great way for you to not only save money but also help contribute towards a healthy and stable environment. Due to its great feature Many companies are designing their entire model of cars using electrictiy. Some companies are also designing car model as hybrid electric car.
Types of Electric car
- Plug-in electric – In this, car runs purely on electricity and get all their power when they’re plugged in to charge. They don’t need petrol or diesel to run so don’t produce any emissions like traditional cars.
- Plug-in hybrid – In this, car runs on electricity but also have a traditional fuel engine so we can use petrol or diesel too. If we run out of charge, the car will switch to using fuel. When it is running on fuel, these cars will produce emissions but when they are running on electricity, they would not. Plug-in hybrids can be plugged in to an electricity source to recharge their battery.
- Hybrid-electric – In this, car runs mainly on fuel like petrol or diesel but also have an electric battery too, which is recharged through regenerative breaking. These let us switch between using our fuel engine and using ‘EV’ mode at the touch of a button. These cars cannot be plugged in to an electricity source and rely on petrol or diesel for energy.
Advantages of an Electric Car
- No need of typical gas engine : Electric cars are entirely charged by the electricity we provide. There is no need of traditional fuel .
- No Emission occurs: Electric cars are more eco-friendly as they run on electrically powered engines. It does not emit toxic gases or smoke in the environment as it runs on a clean energy source. They are even better than hybrid cars as hybrids running on gas produce emissions.
- Cost effective and less maintenance: With more technological advancements, both cost and maintenance have gone down. The mass production of batteries and available tax incentives further brought down the cost, thus, making it much more cost-effective and need less maintenance.
- Reduced Noise Pollution : Electric motors are capable of providing smooth drive with higher acceleration over longer distances. Many owners of electric cars have reported positive savings of up to tens of thousands of dollars a year.
Disadvantages of an Electric Car
- Electric cars are limited by range and speed. Most of these cars have a range of about 50-100 miles and need to be recharged again. We can’t use them for long journeys as of now, although it is expected to improve in the future.
- While it takes a couple of minutes to fuel your gasoline-powered car, an electric car takes about 4-6 hours and sometimes even a day to get fully charged.
- Depending on the type and usage of battery, batteries of almost all electric cars are required to be changed every 3-10 years.
Not Suitable for Cities, Facing Shortage of Power
Future scope of Electric vehicle or Electric car
As we can see automakers are designing more and more Electric vehicles each year. Electric cars are the future in upcoming year. The coming decade is expected to be the decade of the fully electric car. Everyone is working on electric vehicles, from well-established existing manufacturers to new names such as Byton, Lordstown, and Rivian.
With battery prices reportedly falling 73% since 2010, electric cars are expected to be as cheap as fuel-powered cars in the expected future. The International Energy Agency cites that by 2021, nearby 21 million electric vehicles will ply the road, a number that is expected to go up to 70 million by 2025.
India has a lot to gain from the widespread adoption of e-mobility. There are various changes which can be expected to fulfill in upcoming years Under the Make In India initiative launched by our Prime minister(Narendra Modi), the manufacturing of e-vehicles and their associated components is expected to increase the share of manufacturing in India’s GDP to 25% by 2022.
On the economic front, large-scale adoption of electric vehicles is projected to save $60 billion on oil imports by 2030 – currently 82% of India’s oil demand is fulfilled by imports. Price of electricity as fuel could fall as low as Rs 1.1/km, helping an electric vehicle owner save up to Rs. 20,000 for every 5,000km traversed. Finally, electrification will help reduce vehicular emissions, a key contributor to air pollution which causes an average 3% GDP loss every year.
Critical Paradigms in the Adoption of EVs
Charging Station: A charging station, also called electric vehicle charging station, electric recharging point, charging point, charge point, electronic charging station (ECS), and electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). it is a machine that supplies electric energy to charge plug-in electric vehicles—including cars, neighborhood electric vehicles, trucks, buses and others. Electric vehicles are most commonly charged from the power grid. The electricity on the grid is in turn generated from a variety of sources; such as coal, hydroelectricity, nuclear and others. Power sources such as photovoltaic solar cell panels, micro hydro or wind may also be used and are promoted because of concerns regarding global warming.Charging stations can have a variety of different speeds of charging, with slower charging being more common for houses, and more powerful charging stations on public roads and areas for trips. The BMW i3 can charge 0–80% of the battery in under 30 minutes in rapid charging mode. The superchargers developed by Tesla Motors provide up to 250 kW of charging, allowing a 250-mile charge in 30 minutes.
Connectors : Common connectors include J1772, Type 2 connector Type 3 connector, Combined charging system, CHAdeMO, and Tesla. Most electric cars use conductive coupling to supply electricity for recharging after CARB settled on the SAE J1772-2001.
The four plug types are:
Type 1 – single-phase vehicle coupler – SAE J1772/2009 automotive plug specifications
Type 2 – single- and three-phase vehicle coupler – VDE-AR-E 2623-2-2 plug specifications
Type 3 – single- and three-phase vehicle coupler equipped with safety shutters – EV Plug Alliance proposal
Type 4 – fast charge coupler – for special systems such as CHAdeMO
Another approach is inductive charging using a non-conducting “paddle” inserted into a slot in the car. Delco Electronics developed the Magne Charge inductive charging system in 1998 for the General Motors EV1 that was also used for the Chevrolet S-10 EV and Toyota RAV4 EV vehicles
Charging time: It basically depends on the battery’s capacity, power density and charging power. The larger the capacity, the more charge the battery can hold (analogous to the size of the fuel tank). Higher power density allows the battery to accept more charge/unit time (the size of the tank opening).Greater charging power supplies more power/unit time (the pump’s flow rate)